History

In Memoriam: Full List of the Victims the 1929 Hebron Massacre

A full list with biographical details of the 67 victims of the 1929 Hebron massacre.

21.8.16, 19:36
Abu-Hannah, Yitzhak; 70: Born in Morocco in 1859, the Rabbi came to Eretz Yisrael in 1900. He was a soft-spoken  man of little means who spent the better part of his life in the synagogue in Hebron, often fasting. There, he studied and taught from early in the morning until late at night. He was alone in his home when the murderers came. They hanged the 70-year old and abused him until he died.
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Abushadid, Eliyahu; 55: Born in Hebron in 1874; son of Rabbi Haim Abushadid. Worked as a businessman, but studied Torah in the evenings at the synagogue. He fought a futile battle against his killers - whom he knew personally. His wife, Venesya, begged an Arab policeman outside their home for help, but he answered that if he were to go inside, it would be only to kill.
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Abushadid, Yitzhak; 25: Born in Hebron in 1907, he finished high school at the age of 13. He then went on to study the art of silver and gold smithery at the Art College of Betzalel in Jerusalem, where he also worked. He was murdered with his father by multiple stab wounds.
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Ben Gershon (Volensky), Yisrael Shlomo Zalman; 27: Polish-born in Kozova in 1902. An especially gifted youth who completed his studies in half the required time. He studied Torah, German, Russian and mathematics. Known for the poem ‘David and Michal’ and the drama ‘Yitzhak’s victim’. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1922 and was married the following
year. Zalman was wanted as candidate for the position of secretary of the world-famous yeshiva ‘Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael’. He was killed with daggers in Slonim’s house as his horrified wife looked on.
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Berman, Zev Wolf HaLevi; 23: Born in New York in 1906 and a yeshiva student. He became a popular orator who attracted a large number of followers. He came to Hebron with the desire to live a few years in the Land and City of the Fathers and Prophets. He was murdered in Slonim’s house.
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Bernstein, Shmuel Isaac; 23: Born in Minsk in 1903. He studied at various yeshivas. He followed the Slobodka yeshiva when it moved Hebron and studied there for nearly 5 years. As late as the Thursday before the massacre, he completed a work regarding interpretations of the Gemara, ‘Bechorot’ (the oral law a part of the Jewish interpretations of the Torah). On Shabbat, he was murdered in Slonim’s house.
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Broida, Simcha-Yitzhak; 28: Was born in Vilkomyr, Lithuania in 1901. Simcha-Yitzhak studied at many known yeshivas and wrote many papers on Torah explanations. He came to Hebron in 1926 and spent time on  Torah studies. Much of his time also went answering religious questions. He was highly respected, and was called “the great and genius Rabbi”. He, who should have become a great light for Judaism, was instead barbarically murdered. His books were burned by his killers.
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Castel, Rabbi Meir Shmuel; 69: Born in Hebron in 1860 to the well-known Castel family of Castilla, Spain. They had moved to Gaza and lived there for several generations. After Napoleon took the city in February of 1799, the family moved to Hebron. In 1910, he was appointed as a judge on Hebron’s Beit Din (Jewish legal court) and, in 1921, he was chosen as leader of the Jewish congregation in Hebron. He was engaged in much humanitarian work and supported many of the city’s poor. On Friday August 23rd 1929, Arabs broke the windows of the Castel house. His Arab partner came on Shabbat and took all of Castel’s gold and silver with him to “hide it at his house”. He then went downstairs and
calmly opened the door for the mob. The old Rabbi was stabbed to death. His wife was severely wounded.
 
For the story of surviving relatives click here: Massacre Survivor Miriam Sasson (Castel) Stood Up for Hometown
For video interview with son Yaakov Castel, click here. 
For video of great-gransons visiting grave click here.
For video of great-grandsons in Hebrew click here.
For article on trial of murderer click here.
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Cohen, Shimon; 27: Born in 1902 in Yazd, Persia. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1922 and worked as a stone-cutter until his health deteriorated. He opened a shop in Hebron where everything was written and expedited in Hebrew. Shimon assisted many, especially Jews from Persia, and took time to show them Hebron’s many historic sites. Not until 1929 could he save up enough money to be able to bring his mother and two brothers to Israel. In a small room at Slonim’s home, death caught up with him. His killers clubbed him to death with axes. His body wasn’t found until Monday; therefore he was buried apart from the mass grave in the Hebron Jewish cemetery.
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Dobnikov, Haim-Eliezer; 53: Born 1876, in Krogle, Mohilov, Russia. He studied science and psychology at the university and became a therapist. Prior to his coming to Eretz Yisrael in 1924, he was headmaster at a Jewish school where only Hebrew was used. He wrote several books and fought for the use of Hebrew instead of Yiddish in the schools of Warsaw. Dobnikov was the principal of the Nordau School in Tel Aviv. He and his wife moved to Hebron in August 1929, where both were murdered by the mob.
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Dobnikov, Peninna; 45: Born 1884 in Russia; married to Haim-Eliezer. When her husband was imprisoned in Russia, Peninna and their six children fled to the Ukraine. Under appalling conditions, in a run-down shack with no windows or doors, she managed to keep herself and her children alive for a year and a half before they finally managed to escape their pursuers and travel to Eretz Yisrael in 1924. The couple survived the pogroms in Europe, but not in Hebron
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Dribkin, Zvi; 67: The Rabbi was born on April 22, 1862 in Saklov, Russia. He studied in yeshivas his entire life. A genius, he possessed an incredible knowledge of Judaism. His sons arrived at the yeshiva in Hebron in 1926, and he followed them in 1929 arriving six months before the massacre. He was received with great respect in Israel and was a highly valued lecturer in Hebron. The killers silenced a genius of huge dimensions. He was murdered by brutal torture. Rabbi Zvi Dribkin’s abdomen was gashed open and his inner organs torn out. He had escaped the East European pogroms and came to Israel to find peace for his soul. Instead, he became a victim of the pogrom.
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Epstein, Aharon David; 16: Born in 1913 in Chicago where his father was a rabbi. After studying at the University of Chicago, he decided to travel to Hebron to study the Torah with his uncle, Rabbi Moshe Mordechai Epstein, who was the dean of the Slobodka yeshiva in Hebron. Aharon David came to Hebron in the winter of 1929 and was murdered in Slonim’s house.
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Froman, Zvi; 21: Born on 8th August 1908 in Hamilton, Canada. His family moved to Chicago when he was two and a half years old. At the age of 15, he published articles criticizing the school system’s pedagogy. He studied both at the university and the rabbinical school, and was an outstanding student. After some time, his dream of studying at the famous ‘Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael’ yeshiva in Hebron became a reality. He was murdered in the home of Rabbi Betzalel Samarik, where he also lived. He left behind many articles in both English and Hebrew. They contain Torah clarifications and ideas, as well as comments concerning the Word of G-d.
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Greenberg, Zeev; 19: Born in 1910 in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia. When he was eight, his family moved to New York. Early in 1929, he was promised by a fellow Jew a scholarship lasting several years so he could realize his dream of studying at the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva in Hebron. He lived with the Lizelstein family and tried to protect himself from the murderers with a cane. They forced him out into the street where he was murdered. His body was left lying there until Sunday.
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Gershon, Ben Zion; 73: Born in 1856, he studied medicine in Kushta, Turkey before coming to Israel and Hebron in 1877. Here he worked as a doctor and pharmacist. Ben Zion helped both Arabs and Jews in the area for more than 40 years. The poor received free treatment and made up the majority of his patients. During the First World War, he served as a doctor in the Turkish Army. He later ran the Hadassah hospital in Hebron  (Beit Hadassah) and a pharmacy. Once, on the way to a patient, he fell and one of his legs was so badly injured that it had to be amputated. When the murderers entered the house, he was in bed reading Psalms. “What are you doing?” his killers asked. “I’m praying to my G-d”, he answered. His fingers holding the book were cut off by a sword, his eyes were torn out and his body pierced by multiple sword and dagger stabs. His eldest daughter was raped and murdered; his wife was gravely injured and died a few days later. His three other children were also hurt. He was a very pious man and for that reason, never allowed himself to be photographed.
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Gershon, Zehava; 40: From Sofia, Bulgaria where she was born in 1889. She came as a young girl to Eretz Yisrael with her parents. When her husband became confined to a wheelchair and could no longer work as a doctor or pharmacist, she opened a laundry and worked hard to support her family. At the same time, she nursed sick Jews and Arabs at the Beit Hadassah hospital. Zehava was with her children when the murderers came to the house and she attempted to fight them off to save her children’s lives. She was seriously wounded by swords, daggers and sticks bristling with nails and died at the British hospital in Jerusalem 14 days later.
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Gershon, Esther; 22: Born in Hebron in 1907. She studied at the school in Hebron and later worked as a seamstress. She spent much of her spare time volunteering to help the poor. Esther was engaged to be married, but was murdered after a heroic struggle against the Arabs who raped her. They stabbed her several times until she died.
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Goldshmid, Moshe; 31: From Yekaterinoslav, Russia, where he was born in 1898. He studied at the Lubavitch yeshiva from the age of 5. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1925 and settled down in Hebron with his wife and three children. There, he was given the job of ‘shochet’, or kosher butcher and devoted much time to studying. The mob came in and tore his eyes out before forcing his head into the fire of the kitchen stove. His 5-year old daughter witnessed the event. His seriously wounded wife tried to stop the attackers, but was stabbed several times. Shortly afterwards, Arab women looted their house.
 
For full article including video interview with son click here: Sholom Ber Goldshmid: Child Survivor Continued Family Legacy
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Gozlan, Yaakov; 45: The Rabbi was born in 1884 to a family that had lived in Hebron for 150 years. They came from a French colony in Africa (Adzirya). In 1901, he married the daughter of Rabbi Dabab from Jerusalem. He worked half-day as a goldsmith and studied half-day in the yeshiva. He was advised to move from Hebron several days before the pogrom, but trusted his Arab neighbors and refused to flee. His employees murdered him with knives and canes. His son, Moshe, was also murdered. The rest of the family was injured.
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Gozlan, Moshe; 19: Born in Hebron in 1910 and attended a high school in Jerusalem. On Thursday, his relative Leah Gozlan told him she had overheard three Arab leaders, one of them Sheikh Taleb Marka, talking of plans to slaughter Jews in Hebron. He told this to his father, but his father didn’t take it seriously. On Shabbat, both were murdered by their neighbors. The mob tortured him and stabbed him in the face before killing him.
 
For article on the trial of Shiekh Taleb Marka as instigator of the massacre click here
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Grodzensky, Moshe; 54: The rabbi was born in Warsaw, Poland in 1875. His father was amongst the foremost rabbis in the city, and one of the founders of the great ‘Talmud Torah’ yeshiva. He studied in the yeshiva his entire life and had the honor of being a student and disciple of the famous rabbi, the “Hafetz Haim.” Moshe supported many students and families economically. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1925 and was alone when the murderers arrived and tortured him to
death. They tore out his left eye and cut out his brain. His blood splattered all over the ceiling and walls.
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Grodzensky, Leah; 28: Leah was born in 1902 in the village of Hwashmezi, Hungary. She traveled with the ‘Hehalutz’ movement to Eretz Yisrael in 1924 and married Yaakov. In 1928, they moved to Hebron. She was badly wounded and lay 3 days at Bikur Holim Hospital in Jerusalem before she died on August 26th, 1929.
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Grodzensky, Yaakov; 22: Born in Poland in 1907; studied in the yeshivas his entire life. He came to Israel with his father in 1925. He ran a small restaurant for yeshiva students in Hebron with his wife. Yaakov tried to find work in Jerusalem and was there just a few days before the pogrom. He returned to Hebron on Thursday and was killed on Shabbat. His head was split open by an axe.
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Gutlevsky, Aharon Leib; 73: From Ayava, near Vilnius, Lithuania, where he was born in 1856. He was a “melamed” a Torah school teacher and a rabbi of aristocratic birth. He moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1926 and settled down in Hertzliya. In 1929, he moved in with his son-in-law to Hebron because he missed yeshiva life. When the killers arrived at Slonim’s house, Aharon told everyone: “Pray the prayer of confession!” An axe to the head ended his life. He was murdered in Slonim’s house along with his son-in-law Betzalel Lazarovsky, brother Israel and grandchild Deborah -- three generations.
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Gutman, Asher Moshe; 55: Born in the Polish village of Jablonka in 1874. His father died early in life, so Asher Moshe had to start working at an early age. He took upon himself the financial responsibility for his family, also after he married. He arrived in Israel in 1925 and settled down in Tel Aviv, spending much of his time on Torah studies. On August 22 1929, Asher Moshe traveled to Hebron because of failing health. He checked in to the Nachman Segal Hotel and went straight to the Hebron yeshiva. His wife was murdered along with the other guests at the hotel. When the 3 dead were found, they were first listed as ‘unidentified’. The policeman who opened her husband’s jacket found 2-year old Menachem Segal – beheaded!
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Gutman, Hava; 55: Born 1874 in Jablonka, Poland. Just after Hava arrived in Hebron with her husband, she wrote a letter to Tel Aviv: “We’re staying at the Segal Hotel; we have a nice room and have found Hebron to be a fantastic place for recreation.” Her satisfaction with the place was short-lived as she was murdered soon after.
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Hansson, Esther Frieda; 68: Russian-born in 1861. Came to Eretz Yisrael at the age of seven with her parents and remained in Hebron. She studied sewing and married Shochet (kosher butcher) Hansson. Her home was always open to the many Jews who visited the Tomb of Machpela. She was at the Reizmann family home when the killers came. Esther knew them by name and begged for her life. She reminded the murderers of all the help they had received from her. She was badly wounded anyway by sword and dagger stabs. She died six days later at the British hospital in Jerusalem.
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Hasson, Klara; 59: Born in Jerusalem in 1870, daughter of Gaon (expert in theology) Rahamim Yosef Franco and mother Mazal Tov, daughter of Gaon Yitzhak Yisrael. She was known for her charitable deeds amongst the poor and for her love and compassion. Klara would have preferred to live in Jerusalem, but her husband wouldn’t hear of it. The couple was murdered most brutally.
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Hasson, Hanoch; 62: The Rabbi was born on May 22 1867, in Hebron, to Rabbi Mordechai, one of the richest men in the city, and his mother, Rivka, of the famous Benbishti family. He was a Supreme Court member of the Sephardic Judicial Court in Hebron. A very learned man, he also owned a large collection of antique writings on Hebron and its history. The Rabbi was also engaged in fundraising, helping many. Three days prior to the pogrom, he wrote the following to a friend abroad: “I wish you a blessed settling in Israel, for there are no limits for our G-d. …we are not safe from persecution,
but He, The Holy One, will protect us…” During the pogrom, he was murdered together with his wife Klara most barbarically. His book collection was burned by the mob.
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Heichal, Eliyahu Dov; 16: Born in the village of Shkodvil, Lithuania in 1913. His family arrived in Eretz Yisrael on August 1 1926. In Hebron, he began studying at the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva where his brother, Israel-Arieh, was also a student. In 1929, the family was to move to Ra’anana to build up a farm, but the pogrom took their lives. When the mob surrounded their house, Eliyahu and his brother went out to seek help from a British officer and his force who were there. While he held on to the officer’s horse, rioter stabbed him with knives while they asked: “Does this hurt you
yahud (Jew)?” His mother watched helplessly on from a window as the barbaric mob murdered her two sons, but she saved the yeshiva students hiding in the house: “Don’t go out! It is enough with the blood of my sons!”
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Heichal, Israel-Arieh; 20: Born in Shkodvil, Lithuania in 1909, beginning his studies at the age of three. 16, he joined the Jewish group ‘Tiferet Bachorim’ who worked towards coming to Israel. Israel-Arieh was murdered alongside his brother while the police stood by watching and their mother was a helpless witness from a window in the home.
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Heller, Zvi Hirsch; 15: Born on February 20 1914 in Minsk, then a part of Russia, to a well-known family of rabbis. The family came to Eretz Yisrael in 1921. He studied in a yeshiva as early at the age of six, and skipped over several class levels due to his enormous biblical knowledge. He was killed by mortal blows to his head. He fought for his life, but died on August 30, 1929.
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Horowitz, Benyamin HaLevi; 20: Born in New York in 1909. Studied mathematics in college and completed with top marks. He went on to study at a yeshiva, but dreamt of studying at the world famous Hebron yeshiva, Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael. He came to Israel in 1927 with his mother and two sisters, and they settled in Petach Tikva. His sisters went to high school there, while Benyamin went to Hebron to study for two years. He was murdered along with Rabbi Betzalel Samarik, with whom he was staying.
 
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Immerman, Noah; 33: Born in Slutsk, Russia in 1896. He dedicated his life to Torah studies. He was sent to war in 1914, and fought for three years. In 1919, he married, and came to Eretz Yisrael in 1925. He settled in Hebron and built a modern bakery where he worked during the day. His evening hours were dedicated to Torah studies in the synagogue. Immerman was killed under gruesome conditions. He was burned alive by his co-worker Isa (Arabic for Jesus). His wife Royza, 27, and daughter Tamar, 9, were badly hurt before their home was plundered and destroyed.
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Kaplan, Yisrael Mordechai; 22: Born in 1907 in Vilkomir, Lithuania. His father died while Yisrael was still a child, and he, along with his mother, was deported to Astrakhan during the war. Though only a child, he carried sacks of salt from place to place and lived in deep poverty. They were allowed to return home after the war. From then, he studied at various yeshivas and left for Eretz Yisrael in 1925 having been accepted to the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva. He helped barricade the door at Slonim’s house and tried to stop the mob. Despite being shot in the stomach, he held the door closed as best he could: “You must be strong, I am doomed.” A blow to the head with a sword brought him down, and he fell on the gravely injured Rabbi Arieh Dov Lipkin. Yisrael Mordechai died, but in doing so, he saved Lipkin’s life.
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Lazarovsky, Betzalel; 38: Born in 1891 in Maltesch, Grodno County , Russia. He studied with famous rabbis such as the Gaon “Hafetz Haim.” In 1914, he was conscripted into the Russian army. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1926 as a member of the ‘HeHalutz Hamizrahi’ movement and settled down in Hertzliya. He founded synagogue in Apollonia, a Jewish neighborhood which the Greeks had once controlled and where they had built a temple to Apollo. In 1928, he brought his parents from Russia and moved to Hebron. There, he opened boarding house for yeshiva students. He was preparing to buysome land in Herzliya to become a farmer and till Jewish land. The murderous mob slit his throat in Slonim’s house. They did the same to Deborah, his four and a half year old daughter, his brother Israel and his father-in-law, Rabbi Aharon Leib Gutlevsky.
 
For full article & video testomony with his son click here: Massacre Survivor Yosef Lazarovsky Fought for Recognition, Justice
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Lazarovsky, Deborah; 4½: Little Deborah was butchered along with her father, uncle and grandfather in Slonim’s house.
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Lazarovsky, Israel; 17: Born in 1912 in Maltesch, Grodno County, Russia. The family moved to Minsk to secure Israel access to good schools. At the age of 11, he began his studies at 3 o’clock in the morning and studied in secret
at a yeshiva – which was a forbidden and punishable offense in Russia. In 1926, his greatest dream was fulfilled when he was accepted to the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva in Hebron. After two years, he was one of the yeshiva’s best students. On Shabbat, he and his brother were killed by the Arabs in Slonim’s house. During his short time in Israel, he lived a holy life and went in the holiness of his soul to the G-d of Heaven.
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Kaplinsky, Yisrael Hillel; 22: He was born in the village of Knyshin near Bialystok in December, 1907. He studied in yeshivas his entire life and was admitted to the famous Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva at the age of 16. He was regarded as an exceptionally gifted child. He moved to Hebron in 1926 and studied at the yeshiva. His genius led him to being called “the great one”, and the rabbis called him a “living Torah scroll”. He was murdered by several knife and dagger wounds, and his last words were: “The murderers attack me even though I’m dying.”
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Krasner, Haim Zeleg; 16: From Brooklyn, New York where he was born in 1913. His family moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1922, and he studied at the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva in Hebron. Haim was murdered in the home of Nachman Segal. His body was pierced by knives and daggers. He suffered for four hours before dying.
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Lichtenstein, Zeev Elimelech; 58: Born in 1871 in Radzin, Poland. He came to Eretz Yisrael alone, but later brought his wife and four children to Jerusalem. He studied his whole life at the yeshiva, while working hard to support his family. When the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva moved to Hebron, he and his family followed there. On Sunday August 18, 1929, he traveled to Jerusalem when his son-in-law decided to stay there. His son-in-law feared the Arabs would carry out a pogrom against the Jews: “I was at the market and a mute Arab, who sold bread, threatened me with his fists… I realized that we were facing a catastrophe…” On Tuesday, however, he changed his mind and returned to Hebron. “My heart wants to go to Hebron.” On Friday, he was miraculously spared from an attempt on his life when the mob suddenly came in and murdered Samuel Rosenholtz. On Shabbat he prayed the Prayer of Thanksgiving, Hagomel. Soon after the prayers, the pogrom began. He was murdered at Rabbi Moshe Mordechai Epstein’s home.
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Lipin, Dov; 26: Born in Vitebsk, Russia in 1903. After high school, he studied at several yeshivas, including Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael in Lithuania. He came to Hebron in 1926 and was part of the fourth class at Slobodka - Knesset
Yisrael’s branch there. He was murdered in Slonim’s house and was among those who attempted to keep the door
closed. He managed to say “Run and hide yourselves!” before he was axed down next to the door.
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Mitavsky, Meshulam Shraga; 26: Born in 1903 in the village of Levadova, near Vilnius. His father, Ben Zion, was the town’s rabbi and wrote the book ‘Zion’s Children’ before being murdered by anarchists in 1905. Meshulam studied at many different yeshivas before moving to Hebron in 1926. The killers came to Rabbi Grodzensky’s home where he lived. He was hurt by bullets and daggers and died five days later at the Bikur Holim hospital in Jerusalem. His mother wrote a letter to her son’s headmaster in Hebron: “Two sacred members of my family, my husband and my son – who should have become a great, learned man in Israel, were executed. Where can I find comfort now that my beloved Meshulam
Shraga has been murdered by brutal animals? Rivers of tears will flow from my eyes all my days, and that is my comfort…”
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Palatzi, Alter; 29: Alter was born in Hebron in 1900, where his father had moved in 1850. He was an expert in Kabbala which he studied his whole life. Alter was the custodian of the yeshiva and supported his wife, six children and mother. In the evenings, he taught and preached to the people. When the mob knocked on his door, they promised that they would only loot the home. Egged on by an Arab policeman nearby, they killed him by stabbing him repeatedly with knives.
 
For video interview with daughter click here.
For article on daughter's testimony at trial click here.
For article on outcome of trial click here: Arab is Acquitted on Charge of Murdering Jew
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Reizmann, Moshe; 16: Born in 1912 in Jerusalem. He was the son of Rabbi Yeshaya Reizmann who died in 1917 after great suffering in the Turkish army he was forced to serve with. At the age of five, Moshe was sent to Rabbi Diskin’s children’s home. By the age of nine, he was allowed to preach and finished high school at age 13. He came to the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva in Hebron and was noted as an exceptional student. He was murdered by the bloodthirsty Arabs along with his brother, Rabbi Yaakov Zeev Reizmann.
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Orlansky, Avraham Yaakov; 50: Born in 1879 in Bialystok, Poland. He was the son of Rabbi Aharon HaCohen – Petach Tikva’s rabbi. He came to Israel in 1882 and became a great scholar of Judaism. He was also an expert on medieval literature and had a large book collection. Many of the books were very rare. Chief Rabbi of Zichron Yaakov, he possessed a great knowledge of Hebrew and Arabic, and read much literature in the original languages. He was murdered during prayer still wearing his prayer shawl. His head was crushed and his brains spilled onto the floor. His wife, daughter, son-in-law and grandchild were murdered with him.
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Orlansky, Yente; 47: Born in 1882. She was the daughter of Rabbi Zvi Pesach Frank and wife of Rabbi Avraham Yaakov Orlansky. She arrived in Hebron on Wednesday and was murdered on Friday in her son-in-law Slonim’s home.
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Reizmann, Yaakov Zeev; 35: Was born in Jerusalem in 1894 to Rabbi Netanel. The family came to Jerusalem in 1839 from Warsaw, and was amongst the first Jewish families to settle outside Jerusalem’s Old City. He married Hebron Rabbi Zalman Hansson’s daughter and moved there. At the outbreak of the First World War, he was conscripted into the Turkish army and stationed with other Jews in Beer Sheba. In 1917, when the British took over, the Jews left Beer Sheba. A British pilot, thinking they were Turks, opened fire and killed nearly all of them. Rabbi Reizmann buried them in Beer Sheba and they were some of the first Jews to be buried there in modern times. After six years of war, he returned to Hebron and took over his father-in-law’s job as shochet (kosher butcher). On Shabbat, at 9 in the morning, the mob pounded onthe door. As he tried to escape, he was struck by a sword. Injured, he ran out into the street where he was caught by some rioters. They took his valuables before gouging out his eyes, slitting his throat and throwing him down
onto the street. His body wasn’t found until Sunday.
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Ripes, Moshe Aharon; 25: Born in Minsk, Russia in 1904. He studied with well-known rabbis. After only two years, he graduated high school with honors. For five years he led the Zionist group ‘Tiferet Bachorim’ before coming to Hebron in 1926. Here, he studied at the Tiferet Israel yeshiva and experienced the liberation from the pogroms in Russia. In all, he helped 32 Jews escape Russia and come to Israel and in the summer of 1929, he had saved enough money to bring his parents to Eretz Yisrael. His killers didn’t let him finish the Prayer of Forgiveness before stabbing him repeatedly in the heart. When his family arrived in Eretz Yisrael, they found that Moshe was one of the martyrs of Hebron.
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Rosenholtz, Shmuel HaLevi; 23: Born in 1906 in the town Vilkovishki, Lithuania. He studied at various yeshivas, also in Hebron. In Hebron, known at ‘the Matmid’ – the perpetual student, he was by far the most laborious student and a genius with an amazing memory. He was also a sensitive soul and the quintessential symbol of goodness. He was the first victim of the Hebron pogrom. On Friday evening, August 23, 1929, Shmuel sat alone in his Sabbath attire in the yeshiva reading the Gemara. At 4:30pm, vicious murderers attacked the yeshiva. They were disappointed to find only one victim: A large rock crushed his skull, blood splattering everywhere and covering the Gemara. The mob attacked again and pierced his body with daggers. He died with the Word of G-d in his hands. The book became drenched in Shmuel’s blood – blood which had spent a life-time studying the Word of G-d.
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Samarik, Betzalel; 73: Was born in 1856 in the village of Zitl in the Grodno County in Russia. He studied his entire life in yeshivas, teaching and guiding, a great rabbi with incredible biblical knowledge. In 1924, he went to Israel and settled in Hebron. On Shabbat, he came from the synagogue and with some students sat studying at the table. The mob came in and killed him with knives and blunt objects. They also killed three American yeshiva students: Benyamin Horowitz, 20, Zvi Froman, 21, and Aharon Sheinberg, 22.
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Senderov, Eliyahu Yissachar; 17: The youngest child to Rabbi Alter, he was born in Jerusalem in 1912. In 1928, Eliyahu Yissachar was accepted to the yeshiva in Hebron; and his joy in learning was enormous: His days began at 2 in the morning and he studied until late in the evening. He was murdered in a gruesome manner and suffered greatly before dying.
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Segal, Menachem; 2: He was only two years old when the barbaric Arabs cut off his little head. He was found, headless, in the murdered Asher Moshe Gutman’s coat. He had perhaps tried to protect the little child from the bloodthirsty mob.
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Segal, Nachman; 30: Born in the village of Sokoly in Lomza, Poland in 1899. He joined the Zionist movement in 1918, and held a number of positions. In 1925, just after he’d married, he came to Israel. He moved, in 1926, to Hebron where he opened an inn and eatery for yeshiva students. On the day prior to the pogrom, some Arabs stayed the night with him and promised that nothing would happen to the Jews. They left Segal’s home at dawn and started the pogrom at 9 a.m. Several hundred Arabs attacked the house. Segal was seriously hurt and died the next day. His wife, who was carrying their two-year-old son Menachem in her arms, begged for her son’s life and suggested the mob kill her instead. Their answer was: “No, you stay here – he dies!” The child was found beheaded in Asher Moshe Gutman’s jacket – who was also murdered. Students Haim Zeleg Karsner and Simcha Broida were also killed at Segal’s house.
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Shapira, Avraham; 18: Born in 1911 in Jerusalem. He studied with Rabbi Diskin before he was accepted in 1928 to the ‘Ateret Israel’ yeshiva in Hebron. He knew that a pogrom was coming and discussed this with his friends on several occasions. He was attacked in Borland’s house, where he lived. Avraham fought the mob for some time, but numerous knife punctures to the lungs ended the life of this amicable young man.
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Sheinberg, Aharon David; 22: From Memphis, Tennessee, where he was born in 1907. He studied English literature at the local college. In 1928, Aharon moved to Hebron without letting his parents know. He studied at the Tiferet Israel yeshiva while at the same time supporting several yeshiva students financially. He was murdered along with Rabbi Samarik in the latter’s home.
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Sher, Haim Shalom Alter; 24: Born in 1905 in Ruzalya, Lithuania. He studied at several different yeshivas before coming to the Slobodka - Knesset Yisrael yeshiva in 1922. Alter was one of the first to follow Slobodka when it was moved to Hebron in 1924. He was the leader of two foundations supporting yeshiva students financially and collecting donations for the poor. On Shabbat he was with Slonim. He stood at the door and tried to stop the mob from coming in. But his body was repeatedly stabbed with knives and daggers, and he died by the door.
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Unger, Nechama; 22: Nechama was born in Vilnius in 1907 where she learned Hebrew at the local Jewish high school. She came to Eretz Yisrael at age 17 with the ‘Hehalutz’ group. Several years of laborious agricultural work had left their mark on her. She married in 1927 and moved to Hebron. Nechama was stabbed with daggers and went insane; for three days she fought out the atrocities she had experienced before finally dying of grief at the hospital of Dr. Wallach in Jerusalem.
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Unger, Shlomo; 22: He was born in 1907 in Zagorz, Sanok County in Galicia, Poland. He came to Eretz Yisrael in 1923 and worked as an engineer. Shlomo was murdered along with his wife. Their two small children, aged 2 and one month, were spared miraculously.
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Slonim, Eliezer Dan; 29: Born in Hebron in 1900. He was educated at the teachers’ college and worked as a teacher for a few years. He later became a bank director and was the only Jew on the Hebron City Council. Around 70 Jews hid in his home, hoping the Arab community respected Slonim enough not to attack him. It was not to be so. He was murdered with his wife Hannah, and son Aharon.
 
For article on the Slonim family in Hebron click here: "Walk Between the Raindrops" - How Menucha Rochel Slonim United Hebron
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Slonim, Aharon; 5: Aharon was only 5 years old when the murderers stormed into his home, murdering his father and mother and not stopping until they had killed 21 more Jews. He was seriously wounded and died at the Bikur Holim hospital in Jerusalem.
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Slonim, Hannah; 28: She was born in 1902 in Petach Tikva, Eretz Yisrael; the daughter of Rabbi Orlansky and the wife of Eliezer Dan Slonim. On Friday before the massacre, two Arabs stayed the night with them in Hebron: Nase Al Adin and Yakob Haboi. The Arab owner of the house, Gadoi, who lived on the ground floor, promised that nothing would happen to them. But on Shabbat he disappeared and Adin and Haboi opened the door to Slonim’s house “to talk to the mob”. They forced their way in despite the many Jews’ attempts to stop them. They killed Hannah and her son Aharon, her husband and 21 others hiding in the home. Their other child, 13-month old Shlomo, was hurt and is the only surviving member of the family. He was found underneath his mother and the other corpses which had hid him from the murderous mob.
 
For video of Shlomo Slonim as the memorial for his parents click here.
For video interview with Shlomo Slonim (Hebrew) click here.
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Vecksler, Yaakov; 17: Born to a wealthy family from Chicago in 1912. During a family visit to Eretz Yisrael in 1928, he asked permission to remain in Hebron. He stayed with Rabbi Sokolover and quickly became a capable yeshiva student. Before being murdered in Slonim’s house, he managed to embrace Rabbi Sokolover and thank him for everything he had learned from the Torah from him: “I’m glad I’m going to die after having studied the Torah. I thank you for raising me in the Path of the Law and Torah.” A blow from an axe ended his thanksgiving.
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Yagel, Shlomo; 24: Born on September 22 1905 in the Polish town of Slonim, the son of the town’s rabbi and the yeshiva rabbi, HaGaon Rabbi Shabtai. He studied with numerous very famous rabbis and possessed an enormous knowledge of the Torah. Daily, for many years, he would split wood and carry water for a poor widow who lived nearby. He came to Hebron in 1927 and studied at Tiferet Yisrael (Israel’s Beauty) yeshiva. He wrote many letters to friends encouraging them to come to the Land of the Forefathers. He lyrically described Eretz Yisrael, Hebron, the nature and everything around him as Paradise. He was murdered in Slonim’s house. His mother wrote brokenheartedly to her relatives in Eretz
Yisrael: “Shlomo, my beloved, went to Heaven too young in years, but old in knowledge and deeds. He went to Heaven, and in his hands he held a great and holy Torah scroll. My beloved Shlomo was complete in his deeds – both to people and to G-d. Who can console me in the loss of such a son? I find only one comfort: our holy son was murdered for the holy Israel, just as were the ten holy men in their time. The blood of our holy son who gave his life for holy Israel, and the blood of all the other holy and pure who were murdered, will not stand still - it will be as the blood of the prophet Zechariah.”
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Yenni, Avraham; 50: The rabbi was born in Kushta, Turkey in 1879 and came to Eretz Yisrael with his wife in 1911. They settled in Hebron where he spent much of his time on Torah studies. He discreetly helped many of the poor. On Shabbat August 24 1929, he was found dead on the stairs of his home with a dagger in his stomach.
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Yenni, Vida; 44: She was born in Kushta, Turkey in 1885. She dedicated her life to the poor, and very discreetly aided them financially along with her husband. Vida was found murdered in a small storage room by the house where she hid. They had cut her throat and stabbed her.
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SOURCES:
* Hebron: Rebirth from Ruins by Dr. Michal Rachel Suissa, 2009
* Hebron Pogrom: TARPAT by Rehavam Ze'evi, 1994
* Hebron Jews: Memory and Conflict in the Land of Israel by Prof. Jerold S. Auerbach, 2009
* Sefer Hevron by Oded Avisar, 1970
* The Martyrs of Hebron by Leo Gottesman, 1930
 
To visit Hebron including the memorial to the TARPAT (1929) massacre victims contact us:
 
United States contact info:

http://www.hebronfund.org
1760 Ocean Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11230
718-677-6886
info@hebronfund.org

In Israel contact the offices of the Jewish Community of Hebron at:
http://en.hebron.org.il/
02-996-5333
office@hebron.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/hebronofficial
 
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The 1929 Hebron massacre pictures by Gershon Gera | 115 Images