History

History of Hebron - A Time Line

3,800 years of Jewish continuity from Abraham until today.

29.11.15, 23:54
1735 BCE  Abraham comes to the Land of Israel and settles in Hebron
 
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1675 BCE  Abraham purchases the Tomb of Machpela (Patriarch and Matriarch)
 
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1250 BCE  Joshua leads Tribes of Israel. Caleb liberates Hebron.
 
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1007 BCE David is anointed king in Hebron
 
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587  BCE  1st Temple destroyed, Edomites settle Hebron area.
 
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445 BCE  Return to Zion.
 
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164 BCE   Hasmonean Revolt. Judah Maccabee liberates Hebron.
 
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30 BCE  Construction of enormous edifice over Tomb of Machpela (Cave of the Matriarchs and Patriarchs).
 
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70 CE  2nd Temple, Jerusalem, Hebron destroyed.
 
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132  CE  Bar Kochba Revolt. Hebron in center of revolt area.
 
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330  CE  Byzantine Conquest. Church built over Tomb of Machpela.
 
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4th – 6th century CE  Jews continue to pray at Tomb of Machpela and Elonei Mamre.
 
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638 CE  Islamic Conquest. Mosque built in the Tomb of Machpela. Jews still pray in Tomb of Machpela synagogue.
 
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10th century CE  Arabs build "Yusufia" attached to Tomb of Machpela.
 
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1100 CE  Crusader Conquest, Hebron Jews banished. Church built in Tomb of Machpela.
 
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1170 CE Visit by writer and traveler Rabbi Petachia of Ratisbon
 
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1171 CE  Visit by writer and traveler Benjamin of Tudela.
 
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1166  CE Rambam (Maimonides) visits Hebron and prays at Tomb of Machpela.
 
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1260 CE  Mamluk Conquest.
 
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1267 CE  Jews banned from Tomb of Machpela. Ramban visits Hebron "to acquire a burial site."
 
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1489  CE  Rabbi Ovadiah of Bartenura sojourns in Hebron.
 
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1517 CE  Ottoman Conquest, anti-Jewish riots.
 
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1540 CE Rabbi Malkiel Ashkenazi buys land and builds the Jewish Quarter and the Avraham Avinu Synagogue.
 
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1583  CE  Mystics from Tzfat, including the "Reishit Chochmah" Rabbi Eliyahu Di Vidas move to Hebron.
 
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1619 CE Epidemic drives much of community to Gaza for safety. 
 
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1648 CE Rabbi Naftali Bachrach publishes Emeq ha-Melekh, describes Avraham Avinu synagogue miracle of Yom Kippur.
 
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1630  CE  Decrees against Hebron's Jews "The Purim Window Miracle".
 
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1700 CE R. Gedalia of Semyatich (Siemiatycze) and R. Judah Hasid visit Hebron with large group of Jews.
 
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1744 CE Community leader Rabbi Pinchas Mordechai Bajayo sends shaliach abroad.
 
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1748 CE First Hasidic immigrants arrive. R. Abraham Gershon of Kitov, brother-in-law of R. Israel Baal Shem Tov visits.
 
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1753  CE  The "Chidah" Rabbi Chaim Yosef David Azulai goes to Europe as fund raiser on behalf of Hebron's Jews.
 
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1754 CE Rabbi Raphael Chaim Yitzchak Karigal appointed to be a shliach of Hebron, travels to America.
 
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1799 CE Napoleon's invasion forces Jews of Gaza to relocate to Hebron.
 
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1807 CE Magen Avot Sephardi Kollel Organization purchases area today known as the wholesale market.
 
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May 1811 CE  Rabbi Haim Yeshua Bajayo (Haim Yeshua HaMitzri) buys Tel Hebron on behalf of Hebron's Jews.
 
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1819  CE  Fourth Lubavitcher Rebbe calls on his followers to return to Hebron. Many do so.
 
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1834 CE Ibrahim Pasha Conquest. Jewish community suffers massacre. Earthquake damages Hebron. 
 
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1839 CE Sir Moses Montefiore & Lady Montefiore visit Hebron, take census.
 
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1840–1845 CE Second wave of Chabad hasidim arrive including R. Simon Menashe Chaikin & Menucha Rochel Slonim.
 
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1856 CE  Rabbi Eliyahu Mani arrives from Baghdad and settles in Hebron.
 
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1869 CE Ben Ish Hai visits Hebron, attempt to buy the Tomb of Machpela.
 
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1871 CE  Yisrael Avraham Romano builds Beit Romano, Istanbuli Synagogue.
 
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1881 CE  The "Charif" Rabbi Chaim Rachamim Yosef Franco, Chief Rabbinic Justice of Hebron.
 
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1893  CE  Ground floor completed of the "Chessed LeAvraham" Health Clinic, later Beit Hadassah.
 
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1901 CE  Rabbi Chaim Hezekiah Medini, the "Sdei Chemed" moves to Hebron and is appointed city rabbi.
 
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1909  CE  Yosef Avraham Shalom adds a floor on to the "Chessed LeAvraham" Clinic.
 
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1912 CE  The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Shalom Ber Schneerson buys Beit Romano and founds Yeshivat "Torat Emet."
 
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1914  CE  World War I. Community weakened and impoverished.
 
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1918 CE  British conquest.
 
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1925  CE  Community recovers. Slobodka Yeshiva ("Knesset Yisrael") arrives.
 
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1929  CE  Riots. Hebron Massacre. Jews banished, community destroyed.
 
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1931 CE  Part of community returns led by Rabbi Haim Bajayo.
 
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1935  CE  Gerrer Rebbe visits Hebron, prays on 11th step.
 
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April 23, 1936 CE  Hebron Jews banished by British.
 
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1948  CE  State of Israel is reborn. Hebron conquered by Jordan. Jewish Quarter and cemetery demolished. Avraham  Avinu Synagogue becomes trash heap and animal pen.
 
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1963 CE  Prof. Philip C. Hammond begins American Expedition to Hebron, discovers Cyclopean walls at Tel Hebron.
 
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June 8, 1967 CE  Hebron liberated, Rabbi Shlomo Goren waves Israeli flag at Tomb of Machpela.
 
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April 1968 CE   Jewish residents return. Passover seder at Park Hotel. After five weeks they are moved to the Civil Admin. Bldg. and set up community yeshiva and factories.
 
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Oct. 9, 1968 First person to descend into Cave of Machpela in modern times under the auspices Defense Minister Moshe Dayan.
 
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1969 CE  Grenade thrown at Jews by Tomb of Machpela. Dozens wounded. Vice Prime Minister Yigal Alon announces a Jewish city will soon be built near Hebron.
 
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1971 CE  Residents move into Kiryat Arba the new Jewish city adjacent to Hebron.
 
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1975 CE  Prof. Ben-Zion Tavger begins to uncover remains of Avraham Avinu Synagogue.
 
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Oct. 15, 1976 CE - Prime Minister Yitzchak Rabin and Defense Minister Shimon Peres visit.
 
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1979 CE  Women and children enter Beit Hadassah.
 
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Jan. 1980  CE  Residents move into Ramat Mamre.
 
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May 1980 CE  Six Jews murdered at Beit Hadassah. Govt. decides to renew Hebron community.
 
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May 22, 1981 CE  Dedication of renewed Avraham Avinu Synagogue.

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1981 CE Team of Jewish residents descend into Cave of Machpela, first excavation in modern times.
 
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1981 CE Following previous descend, Dr.  Seev Jevin (Zeev Yavin) of the Israel Antiquities Authority visits before entrance is sealed.
 
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1984 CE Prof. Avi Ofer of Tel Aviv University begins excavations of Tel Hevron.

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1984 CE  Tel Hebron renewed. New "Admot Yishai" (or "Tel Rumeida")  neighborhood.
 
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1986 CE  Families move into renewed Beit Hadassah.
 
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1989 CE  New homes dedicated in the Jewish Quarter.
 
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1990 CE  Residents move into "Givat Ha'avot" neighborhood.
 
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1993 - 1994 CE Wave of terrorist attacks kill and wound dozens. Warnings of escalation.
 
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1994  CE Dr. Baruch Goldstein Tomb of Machpela shooting. 29 dead. Riots. Tomb of Machpela closed for 8 months.
 
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1995  CE  Floors added to Beit Schneerson. Nachum Hoss and Yehuda Partush murdered at edge of Hebron.
 
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1997 CE  Israeli gov't abandons most of Hebron to PA. Jews left surrounded by enemies, open to attack from hills.
 
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1998 CE   Rabbi Shlomo Raanan Zt'l murdered in Admot Yishai.
 
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April 1999 CE Emanuel Eisenberg begins Tel Hebron Excavations, King's Seals found at Tel Hebron.
 
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1999 CE  "Beit Nachum Veyehuda" built in Avraham Avinu Neighborhood. Excavations uncover Tel Hebron treasures.
 
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2000 CE "Beit Hashisha" built.
 
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2001 CE  "Oslo War." Terrorism rampant. Hebron Jews under constant fire. Baby Shalhevet Pass shot from Abu Sneineh Hills.
 
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2002 CE  Israeli Defense Forces retake hills surrounding Hebron, finally ending daily shooting attacks, following the murder of five year old Danielle Shefi at Adura community.
 
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2005 CE  Beit Menachem built and dedicated at Admot Ishai (Tel Rumeida) neighborhood
 
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2007 CE  Hebron community concludes purchase of Beit HaShalom. Jewish families populate 4000 sq meter building on road between Hebron and Kiryat Arba
 
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2008 CE  Defense Minister Ehud Barak orders expulsion of Jews from Beit HaShalom after having lived there for 20 months.
 
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2009 CE Jewish community receives official statistics: 500,000 visit Tomb of Machpela in 2009. Less than half that number visit the PA side of the holy site.
 
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2010 CE  Israel adds Tomb of Machpela to list of 150 national heritage sites.
 
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2011 CE Education Minister announces plan to bring students on field trips to Hebron.
 
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2013 CE Prime Minister Netanyahu sends letter of support to community for Parshat Chayei Sarah.
 
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2014 CE Emanuel Eisenberg returns with Prof. Shlomo Ben-David to Tel Hebron, ancient mikvot and wine presses discovered. 
 
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2015 CE 4D movie Touching Eternity and new Hebron Visitor's Center at Beit Hadassah unveiled.
 
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2016 CE Hebron community concludes purchase of Beit Rachel and Leah.
 
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January 2017 CE Bus routes expanded for Hebron, Kiryat Arba.
 
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August 2017 CE Jewish Community of Hebron granted independent municipal status. 
 
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October 2017 CE Fist new housing approved for Hebron in almost 15 years.
 
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March 2018 CE Jewish residents return to Beit Rachel & Beit Leah.